Monday, 11 June 2018

SUMMER TIME. TRAVELLING

Airport language

Are you ready to take a trip? We’re going to start a series of lessons on practical English for use while traveling. Today we’re going to go through the airport step by step, learning important vocabulary and useful phrases along the way.

CONVERSATION #1 – AT THE CHECK-IN DESK

Dan is flying from New York to Los Angeles. When he arrives at the airport, he goes to the check-in desk. Listen to the conversation he has with the agent:

Agent: Good afternoon! Where are you flying to today?
Dan: Los Angeles.
Agent: May I have your passport, please?
Dan: Here you go.
Agent: Are you checking any bags?
Dan: Just this one.
Agent: OK, please place your bag on the scale.
Dan: I have a stopover in Chicago – do I need to pick up my luggage there?
Agent: No, it’ll go straight through to Los Angeles. Here are your boarding passes – your flight leaves from gate 15A and it’ll begin boarding at 3:20. Your seat number is 26E.
Dan: Thanks.

CONVERSATION VOCABULARY AND PHRASES

  • Instead of “Where are you flying today?”the agent may ask “What’s your final destination?” The answer will be the same!
  • You can say “Here you go”anytime you give something to somebody
  • To check your bags means to put them on the airplane inside the cargo compartment. The small bag you take with you on the airplane is called a carry-on. You need to put your carry-on bags through the X-ray machine at security.
  • The scaleis the equipment that tells you the weight of your luggage (45 kilograms, for example)
  • stopover or layover is when the airplane stops in a different city before continuing to the final destination
  • If the agent says that your luggage will go straight through, it means it will go directly to the final destination (and you don’t need to pick it up during your stopover)
  • Boarding passes are the tickets that permit you to enter the airplane
  • When a plane begins boarding, it means that the passengers start to enter the plane. Usually boarding time is 30-60 minutes before takeoff (when the plane leaves)

OTHER QUESTIONS & PHRASES FOR THE AIRPORT

EXCUSE ME, WHERE IS THE AMERICAN AIRLINES CHECK-IN DESK?”

  • “How many bags can I check?”
  • “Will my luggage go straight through, or do I need to pick it up in [Chicago]?”
  • “How much is the fee?”If your bag is heavier than the weight limits, or if your bag is larger than the size limits, you may need to pay extra: an oversized baggage fee or overweight baggage fee (this can be $75 to $300)Some airlines in the United States also charge a fee for ALL checked bags (usually $15 to $30).
  • “Please mark this bag as ‘fragile.’”Say this if you have fragile or sensitive items in your bag that might break
  • “Is the flight on time?”The agent will respond either “Yes” if the flight is on time, or “There’s a 20-minute delay” (for example) if the flight will leave later than expected.

EXTRA QUESTIONS IN THE U.S.

On flights going to or inside the U.S., you might be asked some extra security questions before or during check-in. Here are some sample questions:
Answer YES to these questions:
  • Did you pack your bags yourself?
  • Has your luggage been in your possession at all times?
  • Are you aware of the regulations regarding liquids in your carry-on?
    (Liquids must be 100 mL or less, and stored in a single quart-sized clear plastic bag)
    More information: TSA.gov
Answer NO to these questions:
  • Are you carrying any firearms or flammable materials?
  • Have you left your luggage unattended at any time?
  • Has anyone given you anything to carry on the flight?

CONVERSATION #2 – GOING THROUGH SECURITY

There are two pieces of equipment in security: you put your bags through the X-ray machine, and you walk through the metal detector. Some airports also use a body scanner for a more careful check. 
The X-ray machine has a conveyor belt that moves your bags automatically through the machine. You can put small items like keys or money into plastic bins.
In the picture below, the woman is walking through the metal detector.
Her suitcase is on the conveyor belt after going through the X-ray machine.
Agent: Please lay your bags flat on the conveyor belt, and use the bins for small objects.
Dan: Do I need to take my laptop out of the bag?
Agent: Yes, you do. Take off your hat and your shoes, too.
(he walks through the metal detector)
[BEEP BEEP BEEP BEEP]
Agent: Please step back. Do you have anything in your pockets – keys, cell phone, loose change?
Dan: I don’t think so. Let me try taking off my belt.
Agent: Okay, come on through.
(he goes through the metal detector again)
Agent: You’re all set! Have a nice flight.
The phrase “you’re all set” is a common expression that means “you’re finished and everything is OK.”
Phrasal Verbs: SET OFF and GO OFF
When the alarm sounds, we say “the alarm went off.” To describe what caused the alarm to sound, we say “set off” – for example, “My keys set off the alarm” or “My keys set off the metal detector.”

ANNOUNCEMENTS AT THE GATE

Airports are divided into terminals (the major sections of the airport) and each terminal has many gates. The gate is the door you go through to enter the airplane. Here are a few announcements you might hear while you are at the gate, waiting for the plane to board.
Audio Player
  • There has been a gate change.”(this means the flight will leave from a different gate)
  • “United Airlines flight 880 to Miami is now boarding.”
    (this means it’s time for passengers to enter the plane)
  • “Please have your boarding pass and identification ready for boarding.”
  • “We would like to invite our first- and business-class passengers to board.”
  • “We are now inviting passengers with small children and any passengers requiring special assistance to begin boarding.”
  • “We would now like to invite all passengers to board.”
    (this means everyone can enter the plane)
  • “This is the final boarding call for United Airlines flight 880 to Miami.”
    (this means it is the FINAL OPPORTUNITY to enter the plane before they close the doors)
  • “Passenger John Smith, please proceed to the United Airlines desk at gate 12.”

CONVERSATION #3: ON THE PLANE

The people who work inside the airplane serving food and drinks are called flight attendants. Both men and women who have this job are called flight attendants. Listen to this conversation that Dan has with the flight attendant when dinner is served on the flight.

Flight attendant: Chicken or pasta?
Dan: Sorry?
Flight attendant: Would you like chicken or pasta?
Dan: I’ll have the chicken.
Flight attendant: Anything to drink?
Dan: What kind of soda do you have?
Flight attendant: Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite, Orange, and Dr. Pepper.
Dan: A Diet Coke, no ice, please.
Flight attendant: Here you go.
Dan: Thanks.

CONVERSATION TIPS:

If you didn’t understand what the flight attendant said, you can say Sorry? or Pardon? to ask him or her to repeat it.
If you want to ask for something, you can use the phrase “Can I have…?” or “Could I have…?” Practice your pronunciation with these common requests
  • Can I have a pillow?”
  • “Can I have a blanket?”
  • “Can I have a pair of headphones/earbuds?”
  • “Could I have some water/coffee/tea?”
  • “Could I have some extra napkins?”
Finally, if you need to stand up, but there is a person sitting between you and the aisle, you can say Excuse me and make a motion to start standing up. The person sitting next to you will understand and stand up to let you get out of your seat.
You’ve finished Lesson 16! Now take the quiz to test how well you remember the phrases. In tomorrow’s lesson, you’ll learn English phrases for arriving at the destination airport, going through immigration, and dealing with common travel problems.

Thursday, 31 May 2018

DESCRIBING GRAPHS AND TRENDS



Describing Trends, Graphs, And Changes


In business and everyday English, you sometimes have to describe changes in trends (movement or tendency), graphs, and diagrams.

In the business context, you may have to describe trends in reports, meetings, and presentations. In everyday life, you could describe changes in any subject because things change all the time!

Describing changes and trends generally consists of three parts:
  • Use a verb (or an adjective and a noun) to describe movement
  • Describe the speed or size of the movement
  • Explain the reason or consequence of the change
You can also view it this way: Verb + Speed or Size + Result/Reason/Consequence
Example 
In 2011, Samsung's profits increased considerably thanks to its successful Galaxy S series.
Here are some verbs you can use to describe change and movement.

Upward  Movement

To climb
To rise
To go up
To improve
To pick up
To recover
To increase
To reach a peak

Downward Movement

To fall
To decline
To bottom out
To decrease
To drop
To plummet
To deteriorate
To hit a low
To slip back
To do down

Horizontal Movement

To even out
To remain stable
To stabilize

Here are some adjectives and adverbs you can use to describe the speed and size of change.

Speed of Change

Rapid - Rapidly
Slow - Slowly
Sudden - Suddenly
Sharp - Sharply
Steady - Steadily
Gradual - Gradually
Fast - Quickly

Size of Change

Noticeable - Noticeably
Substantial - Substantially
Considerable - Considerably
Slight - Slightly
Significant - Significantly 
Dramatic - Dramatically
Negligible - Negligibly

Here are some expressions you can use to express reason, consequence, and result:
  • As a result of
  • Due to
  • Because of
  • Was the reason for
  • Caused
  • Resulted in
  • Explains
  • Accounts for
  • That is why
  • Consequently
  • So
  • Thanks to

Time Expressions You Can Use
  • In January / In 2011
  • In Q1 / Q2 / Q3 / Q4 (In the first quarter / second quarter / third quarter / fourth quarter)
  • From January to March

Examples
  • Apple's sales increased significantly due to the launch of the iPhone 4.
    [verb + adverb construction]

    There was a significant increase in Apple's sales due to the launch of the iPhone 4.
    [adjective + noun (word) construction]
  • Our turnover remained stable in January and February. However, in March and April, it dropped suddenly as a result of the financial crisis.
    [verb + adverb construction]

    In March and April, there was a sudden drop in our turnover as a result of the financial crisis.
    [adjective + noun (word) construction]
You will need to describe trends, compare and contrast data or report statistical information. Occasionally you will need to describe a process (which we will explain in another section).
In order to do well in this section, you need to know specific vocabulary related to describing trends.

Verbs to describe an upward trend

The following verbs can be used to describe a trend or pattern that goes up.
  • climb (past: climbed)
  • go up (past: went up)
  • grow (past: grew)
  • increase (past: increased)
  • jump (past: jumped)
  • rise (past: rose)
  • rocket (past: rocketed)
Sentence examples using words that show an upward trend:
  • The number of enrolments increased significantly between 2005 and 2010.
  • Production rose from 800 units in May to 1000 units the following month.

Verbs to describe a downward trend

The following verbs can be used to describe a trend or pattern that goes down.
  • decline (past: declined)
  • decrease (past: decreased)
  • drop (past: dropped)
  • fall (past: fell)
  • go down (past: went down)
  • plummet (past: plummeted) = to fall or drop suddenly in amount or value
  • plunge (past: plunged) = to fall or drop suddenly in amount or value
Plunge and Plummet, when describing trends, have the same meaning.
Sentence examples using words that show a downward trend:
  • Prices of Model X dropped significantly once Model Y became available on the market.
  • Company profits decreased in 2013 by 15%.

Words and phrases used to describe a stable trend

To describe a more or less stable pattern, you can use the following expressions:
  • maintain (past: maintained)
  • remain (past: remained)
  • stay (past: stayed)
  • constant
  • stable
  • steady
  • unchanged

Adverbs used when describing trends

Adverbs describe HOW something happens. They usually come after a verb.
  • sharply, rapidly, quickly, steeply
  • considerably, significantly, substantially
  • steadily, gradually, moderately
  • slightly, slowly
To see the degree of intensity of these adverbs, look at the chart below.

Nouns used when describing trends

  • decline
  • decrease
  • dip (a momentarily small drop in the level of something)
  • drop
  • fall
  • fluctuation (= an irregular rising and falling in number or amount; a variation)
  • growth
  • increase
  • peak (= the highest point)
  • rise
  • slump (= a severe or prolonged fall in the price, value, or amount of something)
  • variation (= a change or difference in condition, amount, or level)

IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 - Describing Trends Vocabulary

Monday, 21 May 2018

EOI Exams practice

El alumnado de Programas de Educación Bilingüe (PEB) inscrito para la Certificación de Nivel Intermedio a través del centros educativos, realizará las pruebas de las diferentes destrezas conformne al calendario oficial publicado por la EOI de Santander. Para más información, puede consultarse en su web directamente: http://www.eoisantander.org/
 CONVOCATORIA PRUEBAS: 
MUESTRAS CUADERNILLOS EXÁMENES: INGLÉS NIVEL INTERMEDIO:
NIVEL INTERMEDIO:
-READING  (COMPRENSION DE LECTURA)
-LISTENING (COMPRENSION AUDITIVA)
-AUDIO DEL LISTENING:
TASK 1
TASK 2 
-WRITING (EXPRESION ESCRITA)


INGLÉS - NIVEL INTERMEDIO BILINGÜE
CURSO 2016/2017
  • Comprensión Escrita (CE)  >  PRUEBA  
  • Comprensión Oral (CO)  >  PRUEBA  
  • Textos MP3 (CO)  >  Audio  
  • Expresión Escrita (EE)  >  PRUEBA 

CURSO 2015/2016